17th Sultan of Perak: Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda (1773-1786)

Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah was the younger brother of Marhum Muda Sultan Mahmud Shah (Raja Kimas). Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah first resided in Pulau Indera Sakti but then relocated to Rantau Panjang Indera Mulia. His nephew, Raja Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah was made Raja Muda.

During Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah’s reign, the Perak Malays had been mining for tin ore along the banks of Sungai Perak. The Malay population of Perak was estimated to be in the region of 30,000, most of which were living at the Sungai Perak basin.

Map showing the approximate location of Pulau Indera Sakti (near Kg Gajah) and Tanjong Putus (at the estuary of Sungai Perak).

By the end of 1783, an Englishman by the name of Captain Forest came to Perak, during which the Dutch V.O.C. trading outpost and warehouse in Tanjung Putus had been put out of commission by the locals. It was noted as well that the V.O.C. had began to show a decline* since the end of the 1600’s as Holland was constantly at war with England at that time. Captain Forest’s journal decribed how tin ore from Perak was sold for a measly 10 Spanish dollars per pikul. As a result, most of the tin ore was smuggled out of Perak via Larut and Kuala Kangsar. It was described that Captain Forest had an audience with Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah, carrying with him an offering of two pieces of silk cloth from Bengal.

In 1785, Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah promised to deliver all tin ore produced to the V.O.C. as part of the final ever treaty signed between Perak and the Dutch. Tin ore was much traded by the V.O.C. and about 5,000 pikuls of tin ore was produced per annum by the Perak Malay miners, which saw the resumption of a Dutch presence in Tanjung Putus. In July 1786, the British, led by Sir Francis Light, occupied Pulau Pinang as their first trading outpost in the Straits of Melaka. The presence of the British in nearby Pulau Pinang was seen to have consequently jeopardised** V.O.C.’s trade in Perak.

This was a reversal of his brother’s (Almarhum Sultan Mahmud) previous anti-Dutch and pro-Bugis stance, and sowed the seeds of political turmoil between Perak and Selangor.

Makam of Marhum Sulung. (Source: Laman Rasmi Pejabat DYMM Sultan Perak)

Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah mangkat soon after in 1786 after reigning for 13 years. He was conferred the posthumous title of Marhum Sulung and was interred*** at Kampung Telok Memali in the Kampung Gajah district, approximately three kilometres south of the makam of his younger brother, Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah.

__________________________________

Footnote:
[*] Nevertheless, the V.O.C. took steps (eg invasion of Riau) in the 1780’s to strengthen their hold of the Straits of Melaka by occupying large areas of the Malay Peninsula.
[**] By 1795 (during the Napoleonic wars), the V.O.C. was bankrupt and the Dutch surrendered Melaka to the English East India Company.
[***] The makam of Marhum Sulung is about two metres from the bank of Sungai Perak!

Reference:
1. Portal Raja Kita Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan
2. Winstedt RO. A History of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur & Singapore: Marican & Sons Ltd; 1982.
3. Marco Ramerini. History of Colonial Malaysia: Dutch Malacca 1641-1795.
4. Raja Azaham Raja Adnan. Keturunan Raja Mahadi.

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10 thoughts on “17th Sultan of Perak: Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda (1773-1786)

  1. Pingback: DYTM Raja Muda: the heir apparent to the throne of Perak « SembangKuala BLOG

  2. Pingback: DYTM Raja Muda Perak: the heir apparent « SembangKuala BLOG

  3. Salam moderator Sembangkuala

    DYMM Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda ibn Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah Aminullah “Marhum Sulong” (1773-1786) merupakan nenek moyang patik dan juga pernah digelar Raja Bendahara Penyengat Hitam.

    Rujukan

    N.A Halim, Sejarah Perak. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Muzium Negara, 1976.

  4. Dear editors,

    I learnt from YM Raja Azizulkhir bin Raja Harun Al-Rashid, it was Almarhum Teja Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar that was known as Raja Bendahara Penyengat Hitam. Apart from obtaining this information directly from Almarhum Sultan Idris II, Raja Azizulkhir said it is a well-known ‘fact’ among the Royals that Bendahara Penyengat Hitam was the pseudonym accorded to Almarhum Teja Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar.

    So, perhaps there were two Royals who assumed the same pseudonym?

  5. Assalammualaikum moderator Sembangkuala dan
    YM Engku Mariam.

    Berdasarkan kepada catatan rekod berkenaan Sejarah Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan, hanya YAM Raja Alauddin ibn Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah Aminullah sahaja yang bergelar “Bendahara Penyengat Hitam” semasa baginda memegang jawatan Raja Bendahara itu. Pada tahun 1733, baginda pun ditabalkan sebagai Raja Pemerintah Negeri Perak (bergelar DYMM Paduka Seri Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda ibn Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah Aminullah) bagi menggantikan adinda baginda (DYMM Almarhum Paduka Seri Sultan Mahmud Shah II) yang mangkat pada tahun tersebut.

    Di sini, patik memetik kenyataan / fakta tersebut dalam buku yang bertajuk “Cempaka Sari: Sejarah Kesultanan Negeri Perak” yang ditulis oleh Allahyarham Dato’ M.A Fawzi Basri dan telah diterbitkan oleh Yayasan Perak pada 1986.

    Dalam buku Cempaka Sari, penulis telah menyatakan secara jelas tentang SENARAI PENYANDANG GELARAN BENDAHARA NEGERI PERAK SEHINGGA 1952 (patik hanya memetik maklumat yang penting sahaja):

    Bendahara Perak yang ke-11
    11. Raja Alauddin Ibni Almarhum Mohammad Shah, Bendahara Penyengat Hitam.

    Bendahara Perak ke-22
    22. Raja Alang Iskandar Ibni Raja Kecil Tengah Ahmad mangkat di Teja.

    Melalui rekod ini jelaslah bahawa hanya Raja Alauddin sahaja yang digelar Bendahara Penyengat Hitam dan bukannya Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar Marhum Teja dan YM Raja Ali Raja Amran juga mengesahkan maklumat tersebut sebagai tepat berdasarkan catatan salasilah yang dihasilkan oleh YM Raja Haji Yahya ibn Raja Daud Shahid(Engku Imam Paduka Tuan) kepada W.E. Maxwell pada tahun 1884.

    Berkenaan dengan rekod bertulis mengenai Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar pula, patik telah memetik sebuah buku yang bertajuk “Kisah dan Riwayat Sejarah Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan” yang ditulis sendiri oleh YAM Almarhum Raja Hj. Ismail ibn Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Shah Kaddasallah. Buku ini ditulis semasa zaman pemerintahan DYMM Almarhum Sultan Idris Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah (Marhum Afifullah). Buku ini juga disimpan oleh YM Raja Azmatul Azfa (Ku Senyum) bt. Raja Mohammad Iskandar.

    Dalam buku ini (hlm.32) dijelaskan Salasilah Zuriat Almarhum Teja:
    “Raja Bendahara Raja Alang Iskandar (Almarhum Teja)ibni Raja Ahmad, gelarannya Raja Kechil Tengah. Bondanya bernama Raja Che Puan Busu binti Almarhum Paduka Seri Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah…”

    Untuk pengetahuan buku ini menceritakan secara jelas dan mendalam tentang nasab keturunan Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar dan ia tidak pula menyatakan kepada kita bahawa Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar itu bergelar Raja Bendahara Penyengat Hitam. Baginda hanya dikenali sebagai “Almarhum Teja” sahaja.

    Rujukan:

    1. YAM Raja Hj. Ismail ibn Sultan Iskandar Shah Kaddasallah. Kisah dan Riwayat Sejarah Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan. (teks Jawi) dan tidak diterbitkan. Koleksi peribadi YM Raja Azmatul Azfa bt. Raja Mohammad Iskandar.

    2. M.A. Fawzi Basri. Cempaka Sari: Sejarah Kesultanan Negeri Perak. Cet.Kuala Lumpur:1986

    3. YM Raja Ali bin Raja Amran (Kuala Kangsar)

  6. Dear editors,

    Quite mind boggling … literally! Never thought a pseudonym would attract such a response. I enjoy learning about our rich Perak history, and I have to appreciate it even more when it is arduously shared.

    What I wish to add is to highlight that the original source of my sources on what I wrote earlier was DYMM Almarhum Sultan Idris II himself. And I have no reason to dispute his account.

    Meanwhile, YAM Raja Shahruzzaman ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris II shared that the title ‘Panglima Penyengat Hitam’ (not ‘Bendahara Penyengat Hitam’) refers to the ‘ilmu kebatinan’ that the name-bearer possesses. Almarhum Teja Raja Alang Iskandar was said to have such a lethal ‘capability’ that when he struck his keris into the earth, the intended target would feel the ‘bisa’ and perish… hence, the ‘Penyengat’. He felt it is possible that more than one Royal had carried or be accorded the pseudonym if they had such ‘ilmu kebatinan’.

    Wallahu’alam.

    Sources:
    1. YM Raja Azizulkhir bin Raja Harun Al-Rashid
    2. YAM Raja Shahruzzaman ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris II
    3. YM Raja Azmatul Azfa bt Raja Mohamad Iskandar

    • Salam Ku Adley and nde Yam

      Jika di ikut keterangan YAM Ku Shah, ada kemungkinan kedua-dua Raja Bendahara Alauddin dan Marhum Teja menyandang gelaran ‘Penyengat Hitam’, jika diikut konteks yang pemegang gelaran ini merujuk kepada ilmu kebatinan yang wujud pada si-pemegang gelaran.

      Perlu di ingat bahawa kisah-kisah sejarah Perak ini wujud dalam dua bentuk – baik dari hasil kajian oleh ahli sejarah bertauliah atau dari cerita-cerita ‘word-of-mouth’ dalam keluarga di-Raja. Semoga para pengunjung SembangKuala dapat mengkayakan lagi khazanah sejarah negeri ini dengan menyumbang dalam bentuk diskusi yang positif sebegini rupa.

      -M.

  7. Pingback: The V.O.C. and Perak tin « SembangKuala BLOG

  8. Asalamualaikum. Maafkan patik utk bertanya – adakah Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar dan Alang Rabu orang yang sama, atau kaum kerabatnya. Ataupun tidak ada kena mengena sama sekali. Sekadar mencari status kedudukan sebenar, maafkan patik.

  9. Wassalammualaikum En. Ghan

    Pada pendapat saya, Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar “Marhum Teja” rasanya tidak mempunyai nama yg lain (seperti mana yang tercatat dalam sumber sejarah dan juga Salasilah Raja-raja Perak Darul Ridzuan) dan inilah kali pertama saya mendengar nama “Alang Rabu”. Mungkin juga waris kepada Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar yg lain mengetahui maklumat berkenaan “Alang Rabu” itu. Wallahu a’lam

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