The Ghee Hin and Toa Peh Kong membership certificate

The Ghee Hin membership certificate

The Ghee Hin membership certificate. (Source: The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early Modern History (1800-1940) Dr. Cheah Boon Kheng ed. Archipelago Press 2001)

The Ghee Hin Kongsi (義興公司) is a secret society in Singapore and Malaya, formed in 1820. Ghee Hin literally means “the rise of righteousness” in Chinese. The Ghee Hin often fought against the Hakka-dominated Hai San secret society. The Ghee Hin was initially dominated by the Cantonese, although Hokkiens formed the majority by 1860. Teochew, Hainanese, Hakka and Foochow form smaller minorities. Their main lodge was located in Lavender Street, which contained the ancestral tablets of important ex-members, before being donated to the Tan Tock Seng Hospital when it was torn down in 1892, following the Suppression of Secret Societies Ordinance.

The Toa Peh Kong membership certificate

The Toa Peh Kong membership certificate. (Source: The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early Modern History (1800-1940) Dr. Cheah Boon Kheng ed. Archipelago Press 2001)

The Toā Peh Kong or Khian Teik secret society was led by Khoo Thean Teik (邱天德), one of the most powerful and notorious Hokkien leaders of 19th-century Penang. The Khian Teik society was involved in the Penang Riots of 1867 and through its connection with the Hai San, the intercine Larut Wars of 1861 to 1874. Together with Chung Keng Quee, Khoo Thean Teik secured the monopoly for the Perak revenue farms (tobacco, liquor, opium, pawnbroking, and gambling) in 1889.

Reference: Wikipedia

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