Further reading on the subject of Nobat

Britannica Online: Before Malaysian independence, the nobat, an old royal instrumental ensemble dating back to about the 16th century, played exclusively for important court ceremonies in the palaces of the sultans of Perak, Kedah, Selangor, and Trengganu.

http://themalaynobat.blogspot.com/: The Selangor nobat is identical to Perak’s in terms of instruments and repertoire. Even the players are from the same orang kalur family of Perak. The serunai player, Tuan Haji Lop Zahari (wearing glasses) is a retired Perak player whose son is now playing with the Perak ensemble.

http://www.musicmall-asia.com/malaysia/classical/nobat.html: Ku Zam Zam Ku Idris (1994) describes the Malay Nobat, a court music genre originating in the Malay Peninsular from the days of the Melaka Sultanate. Essentially a secular form, it is the music of the rites of passage of the Sultans and ‘Anak Gahara’ of Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan’s Pasukan Gong Gendang Besar Diraja. (Mohd. Anis, 1997). Mohd. Ghouse (1992) states that nobat music is played to accompany religious as well as royal ceremonies, by 6 musical instruments played in ensembles: 2 wind instruments, 2 types of drums and, only in the state of Kedah, a gong. Malm (1974) suggests that the nobat was brought over to Malaysia by Indian-Muslim traders in the days of the Melaka Sultanate. He also states that 4 types of instruments were used: the serunai, the nafiri, a small kettle drum and two barrel drums.

Jabatan Muzium Malaysia: Special ceremonial music to accompany official court functions only be played by royal commad. The orchestra are made up of drums, flute, trumpet and gong performed by a group of royal musicians originated from the same clan or family. Principal occasions which call for Nobat accompaniment are the installation of a ruler or at his funeral or marriage.

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