1st Sultan of Perak: Sultan Muzaffar Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah (1528-1549)

Perak, with its capital at Bruas, was a province of Melaka. When Melaka fell to Portuguese in 1511, Sultan Mahmud fled, eventually becoming Sultan of Kampar-Sumatra which was also a province of Melaka. Perak was left to its own fate and needed a ruler. A mission, headed by Tun Saban and Nakhoda Kassim, to ask Sultan Mahmud for one of his sons to come and rule over Perak. Sultan Mahmud then instructed his second son from his marriage to Puteri Onang Kening of Kelantan, Raja Muzaffar, to go forth to Perak. On receiving such good tidings, Tun Saban returned to Perak and prepared 77 elephants bearing gifts to await their new Sultan at the estuary of Sungai Perak.

Raja Muzaffar, carried with him the state regalia, comprising the sword Chura Si-Manjakini, a keris, the Cap Kayu Cempa (which bore the inscription ‘Sultan Muhammad Shah Dzil Allah Fil-Alam’), the nobat and the Surat Chiri, to Perak. During a stop at Klang to meet his relatives, Raja Muzaffar met Nakhoda Tumi of Manjong, a merchant ship captain who sailed regularly to Perak. Nakhoda Tumi came on board Raja Muzaffar’s ship and continued their onward journey to Perak. On arriving at Beting Beras Basah, the ship got stuck despite various efforts. Raja Muzaffar then called (seru):

Sekongkong Tanah Minangkabau
Selilit Pulau Perca
Di lengkong ular Saktimuna
Perpisahan beta di Selat Melaka
Jika sah beta Raja berdaulat
Lepaslah sekalian malapetaka.

Following the seru, the ship somehow was released and was able to continue in its journey. On arrival in Perak, Raja Muzaffar was met and welcomed by Tun Saban and the joyful people of Perak, who shouted “Daulat Tuanku!” thrice. The people then escorted him to Tanah Abang[1] where he then instructed his people to build his residence. He was duly installed and was styled Sultan Muzaffar Shah, during which the mestika embun was presented to him by Tok Temong.

After his installation, he appointed Tun Mahmud, son of Tuan Tun Isap Barakah and Puteri Siat of Bruas, to be his Bendahara. After holding this post for some time, Bendahara Mahmud was invited by Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II of Johor (brother to Sultan Muzaffar Shah) to be Bendahara at his court.

Sultan Muzaffar asked for the hand of Tun Merah, daughter of Tun Saban, but was refused. One day when Tun Saban was away from his house, having gone upstream on one of his periodical visits, Sultan Muzaffar abducted Tun Merah and kept her in his palace. This so angered Tun Saban that he declared war on the Sultan. He built a fort at Kuala Temong from where he defied the Sultan’s forces. Secure in the fact that his skin could not be pierced by bullets (kebal), he used to laugh at the efforts made to shoot him down.

Sultan Muzaffar then issued a proclamation that whoever could kill Tun Saban would be awarded with the highest chieftaincy in the state. Within the army of the Sultan was  a soldier of fortune named Megat Terawis ibni Almarhum Daulat Pagar Ruyong, a scion of the great imperial house of Minangkabau. Megat Terawis was ‘born with a silver bullet in each hand’, each bullet bearing the inscription:

Inilah peluru anak Raja Pagar Ruyong – di mana ia jatuh, di situlah tuannya menjadi tuan.“[2]

Megat Terawis faced Tun Saban, and fired his matchlock (istinggar). The bullet struck Tun Saban on his chest but fell to the ground, as it had not pierced Tun Saban’s skin. Tun Saban picked it up, read the inscription and knew that his hour of doom had come. He then sent for Megat Terawis, named him as his heir, expressed regret for his past hostilities to the Sultan and married Megat Terawis to one of his daughters, Tun Bongsu Bangsawan. Tun Saban then succumbed to his injury from the mystical bullet and was interred at Changkat Merah in Hulu Perak. Megat Terawis was rewarded with the highest chieftaincy in the state carrying the title Bendahara Paduka Raja[3].

Makam Sultan Mudzafar 1

Makam Sultan Muzaffar Shah located at Kampung Air Mati, Tanah Abang, Telok Bakong Lambor Kanan, Perak

Sultan Muzaffar Shah later moved his residence to Kota Lama Kanan near Kuala Kangsar. However, Almarhum mangkat in 1549 and was interred at Tanah Abang. The title Marhum Tanah Abang was conferred on him after death.

Footnote:
[1]On arrival, Raja Muzaffar came upon a boy who was crying next to the dead body of a boy of about the same age. “Young man, whose body is that lying next to thou?” asked Raja Muzaffar. The boy respectfully replied, “My older brother, Tuanku. I killed him with my keris as he was making fun of me.” The boy continued, “We came upon some bamboo plants and I asked my brother, ‘Apakah nama buluh ini?’ He kept on replying, ‘Buluh apa.‘, not answering my question. I then got angry and killed him.” On hearing this sad tale, Raja Muzaffar then said, “Knoweth thou this, thine brother did not make fun of thou. He was speaking the truth as the type of bamboo is called buluh apa.” On hearing Raja Muzaffar’s explanation, the boy was filled with utmost regret and killed himself by stabbing his keris into his own heart. The location of the graves of the two young brothers was named Tanah Abang by Sultan Muzaffar Shah.
[2]Transl. “This is the bullet of the prince’s son of Pagar Ruyong – wherever this bullet lands, its lord will be made lord of the land.”
[3]This post of Bendahara was held by the descendants of Megat Terawis for more than 200 years, the last one being Bendahara Megat Abu Kassim who resigned his office because Sultan Iskandar Dzulkarnain (1754-1764, the 15th Sultan of Perak) was not satisfied with the construction of the palace he was commanded to build at Pulau Indera Sakti.

10 thoughts on “1st Sultan of Perak: Sultan Muzaffar Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah (1528-1549)

  1. Pingback: Tengkolok Di-Raja « SembangKuala BLOG

  2. Pingback: Megat Terawis « SembangKuala BLOG

  3. Pingback: Wilkinson’s treatise of the history of pre-British Perak « SembangKuala BLOG

  4. Pingback: A JSBRAS excerpt including part of the Perak salasilah, part 2 « SembangKuala BLOG

  5. Upon his ship being stuck at Beting Beras Basah, the mouth of the Perak River, a storm ensued and after various efforts to refloat the vessel failed, he then made the ‘seru’ (as per the story). Upon that a jinn appeared, Mahkota SiRaja Jinn. The pawang Raja then advised Sultan Muzaffar to cast the crown of the Melaka Kingdom into the waters, upon which when he threw the crown, the storm subsided and the ship refloated and sailed upstream. Ever since then, all the Sultans of Perak are never crowned (dimahkotakan) nor any title of state be allowed to use the word Mahkota. It now belongs to the Jinn, since the crown was thrown into the waters of Sg Perak.

  6. YM Engku Editors of Sembangkuala

    To follow up the context of YAM Engku’s comments, according to Jawi manuscripts about the Perak titles (Rajas and Chiefs), the word ‘Mahkota’ in Orang Kaya-Kaya Laksamana Raja Mahkota was spelled [mim, nga, kaf, wau, ta]. Supposed to be pronounced as Mengkota. However, in romanised version of the title, it is spelled ‘Mahkota’.

    Does Mahkota and Mengkota in this instance mean a different word?

    Regards,

    MEGAT ISKANDAR

  7. Pingback: Pilgrimage of the newly installed Sultan Idris Shah II to the royal makams, 1963 « SembangKuala BLOG

  8. Pingback: Raja DiTakhta Bernoktah Tiada | SembangKuala

  9. menarik sejarah tu. saya juga minat untuk mengkaji dan memberi imput (jika ada). Tahniah. Saya berasal dari Padang Marhum (Tanah Abang) Telok Bakong. Umur 61 dan sekarang pesara tentera

  10. Apabila Melaka telah ditawan oleh Portugis, Raja Melaka ketika itu Sultan Ahmad Shah dan ayahandanya bekas Raja Melaka Sultan Mahmud Shah telah berundur ke Pagoh, Johor dan seterusnya ke Pulau Bentan. Semasa bersemayam di Bentan itulah Sultan Ahmad Shah telah dititah bunuh secara senyap oleh ayahandanya sendiri iaitu Sultan Mahmud Shah akibat daripada sikap baginda yang tidak disukai oleh pembesar-pembesar tua Melaka-Bentan. Dengan kemangkatan Sultan Ahmad Shah, kuasa pemerintahan telah diambil alih semula oleh Sultan Mahmud Shah dan baginda juga telah memerintahkan supaya mana mana pembesar yang setia kepada almarhum anakanda baginda itu yang enggan memberi taat setia kepada baginda juga dihukum bunuh. Setelah berkuasa semula baginda sultan telah melantik anakanda baginda iaitu Raja Muzaffar yang beribukan puteri Raja Kelantan sebagai orang Raja Muda. Semasa bersemayam di Bentan itu juga Raja Beruas, Tun Aria Bija DiRaja yang dititah menghadap oleh Sultan Mahmud Shah telah meminta supaya Raja Muda Muzaffar dijadikan Raja Pemerintah di Perak-Beruas. Permintaan Tun Aria Bija DiRaja itu tidak diperkenankan oleh baginda atas alasan bahawa Raja Muzaffar adalah pengganti baginda. Semasa memerintah di Bentan, isteri baginda Tun Fatimah telah melahirkan Raja Alauddin dan atas desakan Tun Fatimah bersama sama pembesar-pembesar berketurunan Tun, baginda telah melantik Raja Alauddin sebagai Sultan Muda seterusnya mengisytiharkan Raja Alauddin sebagai pengganti baginda.
    Pulau Bentan kemudiannnya telah diserang dan dimusnahkan oleh angkatan perang Portugis dari Melaka dan ini menyebabkan Sultan Mahmud Shah, kaum kerabat, pembesar-pembesar dan sebahagian hamba rakyat melepaskan diri ke Kampar, Sumatera. Setelah beberapa tahun bersemayam di Kampar baginda telah menerima menghadap pembesar-pembesar utama yang berkuasa di sepanjang Sungai Perak yang diketuai oleh Tun Saban iaitu pembesar Ulu Perak dari kaum kerabat Raja Beruas. Permintaan pembesar-pembesar tersebut yang berkehendakkan salah seorang putera baginda untuk dirajakan di Perak telah diperkenankan oleh baginda Sultan Mahmud. Raja Muda Muzaffar telah dianugerahkan oleh baginda kepada rakyat Perak untuk dijadikan raja pemerintah Perak. Raja Muda Muzaffar juga telah dianugerahkan oleh ayahanda baginda Sultan Mahmud Shah semua alat kebesaran Kerajaan Melaka kecuali nobat untuk dibawa bersama sama ke Perak.
    Baginda Raja Muda Muzaffar telah berlayar dari Kampar dengan diiringi oleh putera raja dari Pagarruyung iaitu Megat Terawis ibni Daulat DiPertuan Tuanku Raja Megat Turawan berserta pengikut-pengikut yang berketurunan Minangkabau. Dari Kampar baginda telah singgah di Siak bagi menghadap Sultan Ahmad iaitu abang ipar baginda memohon bantuan tambahan untuk ke Perak. Sultan Ahmad, Raja Siak ini adalah putera kepada Megat Kudu-Sultan Ibrahim dengan Raja Mahadewi puteri Sultan Mansur Shah Melaka. Baginda telah berkahwin dengan Raja Mah( Fatimah ? ) puteri Sultan Mahmud Shah dengan puteri Raja Kelantan. Dari Siak pula rombongan diraja ini telah berlayar ke Kelang, Selangor dan kemudiannya ke Kuala Sungai Perak seterusnya mudik sehingga ke suatu tempat yang dikenali sekarang sebagai Lambor Kanan. Raja Muda Muzaffar telah menamakan tempat pendaratan baginda itu sebagai Tanah Abang. Di Tanah Abang, Raja Muda Muzaffar telah ditabalkan bernobat oleh pembesar-pembesar utama Perak dibawah pengawasan Megat Terawis putera raja dari Pagarruyung itu. Banyak peristiwa yang berlaku selepas tertabalnya Sultan Muzaffar Shah ibni Sultan Mahmud Shah sebagai sultan Perak yang pertama dan apa yang pasti jurai keturunan baginda yang kemudiannya diperkuatkan oleh jurai keturunan raja raja Pagarruyung, Minangkabau berterusan sehingga kini menjadi waris ganti Raja-raja Pemerintah Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan sehingga ke hari ini.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s