Sultan Abdullah’s proclamation ‘J’: the last straw?

Proclamation J 1875

JMBRAS, Vol. XXIV Part 4, Dec 1951. Sir Frank Swettenham's Perak Journals. 1874-1876. p 147 (Click to enlarge)

One of the dictates of the Pangkor Treaty signed in 1874 was the collection of tax by the British – “all collections and control of taxes as well as the administration of the state would be done in the name of the Sultan, but the Sultan was to govern according to the advice and consent of the Resident“, which increased the ire of the general populace of Perak ultimately leading to that fateful event that befell J.W.W. Birch, exactly a month after this proclamation was made.

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