Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah was the younger brother of Marhum Muda Sultan Mahmud Shah (Raja Kimas). Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah first resided in Pulau Indera Sakti but then relocated to Rantau Panjang Indera Mulia. His nephew, Raja Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah was made Raja Muda.
During Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah’s reign, the Perak Malays had been mining for tin ore along the banks of Sungai Perak. The Malay population of Perak was estimated to be in the region of 30,000, most of which were living at the Sungai Perak basin.
By the end of 1783, an Englishman by the name of Captain Forest came to Perak, during which the Dutch V.O.C. trading outpost and warehouse in Tanjung Putus had been put out of commission by the locals. It was noted as well that the V.O.C. had began to show a decline* since the end of the 1600’s as Holland was constantly at war with England at that time. Captain Forest’s journal decribed how tin ore from Perak was sold for a measly 10 Spanish dollars per pikul. As a result, most of the tin ore was smuggled out of Perak via Larut and Kuala Kangsar. It was described that Captain Forest had an audience with Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah, carrying with him an offering of two pieces of silk cloth from Bengal.
In 1785, Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah promised to deliver all tin ore produced to the V.O.C. as part of the final ever treaty signed between Perak and the Dutch. Tin ore was much traded by the V.O.C. and about 5,000 pikuls of tin ore was produced per annum by the Perak Malay miners, which saw the resumption of a Dutch presence in Tanjung Putus. In July 1786, the British, led by Sir Francis Light, occupied Pulau Pinang as their first trading outpost in the Straits of Melaka. The presence of the British in nearby Pulau Pinang was seen to have consequently jeopardised** V.O.C.’s trade in Perak.
This was a reversal of his brother’s (Almarhum Sultan Mahmud) previous anti-Dutch and pro-Bugis stance, and sowed the seeds of political turmoil between Perak and Selangor.
Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah mangkat soon after in 1786 after reigning for 13 years. He was conferred the posthumous title of Marhum Sulung and was interred*** at Kampung Telok Memali in the Kampung Gajah district, approximately three kilometres south of the makam of his younger brother, Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah.
[*] Nevertheless, the V.O.C. took steps (eg invasion of Riau) in the 1780’s to strengthen their hold of the Straits of Melaka by occupying large areas of the Malay Peninsula.
[**] By 1795 (during the Napoleonic wars), the V.O.C. was bankrupt and the Dutch surrendered Melaka to the English East India Company.
[***] The makam of Marhum Sulung is about two metres from the bank of Sungai Perak!
1. Portal Raja Kita Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan
2. Winstedt RO. A History of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur & Singapore: Marican & Sons Ltd; 1982.
3. Marco Ramerini. History of Colonial Malaysia: Dutch Malacca 1641-1795.
4. Raja Azaham Raja Adnan. Keturunan Raja Mahadi.