Siri ‘A History of Perak’: Campurtangan British, bah. 4

Paparan ini merupakan sambungan kepada sedutan dari buku A History of Perak karangan R.O. Winstedt dan R.J. Wilkinson. Di sini kita dapat melihat bagaimana Sir Andrew Clarke mengambil langkah pertama untuk British campurtangan dalam hal ehwal negeri Perak melalui Perjanjian Pangkor pada 1874.

Sememangnya berbagai cara boleh digunakan untuk campurtangan dalam hal ehwal negeri Perak, dan tindakan Sir Andrew Clarke dalam hal ini adalah seperti berikut – perubahan polisi asal Sir Harry Ord (mantan Gabenor), pengiktirafan hak Raja Muda Abdullah untuk menjadi Sultan, pemilihan Mr. (J.W.W.) Birch sebagai Residen dan panduan yang diberi kepada Birch dalam menjalankan tugas pentadbiran.

Pemandangan Singapura di akhir kurun ke-19. (Sumber: Google Images)

Sewaktu Perjanjian Pangkor dimeterai, Sir Andrew Clarke mungkin tidak mengetahui yang mantan Gabenor Ord telah sebelum ini mengiktiraf Menteri Ngah Ibrahim sebagai pemerintah Larut yang boleh dikirakan bebas dari pengaruh Sultan. Dokumen perihal Menteri Larut berada di Pulau Pinang diwaktu itu dan dokumen ini hanya dapat dikaji oleh Gabenor Clarke pada 23 Januari 1874. Dari dokumen tersebut, walaupun kenyataan yang dibuat mantan Gabenor Ord di Majlis Singapura (Singapore Council) tidaklah eksplisit, kekacauan yang berlaku di Larut dianggap oleh Singapura sebagai masalah yang perlu diselesaikan oleh pentadbiran di Pulau Pinang. Di waktu itu, segala nasihat yang diberi berkenaan hal ehwal di Larut adalah melalui Leftenan-Gabenor Anson di Pulau Pinang; manakala penasihat-penasihat Gabenor Clarke di Singapura seperti Mr. (Thomas) Braddell yang tidak pernah ke Larut mungkin tidak dapat memberi gambaran sebenar tentang kekacauan di sana.

Tan Kim Ching. (Sumber: Google Images)

Walaupun Gabenor Clarke telah diarahkan oleh London untuk memperkenalkan sistem Residen, beliau tidak menerima arahan tentang kaedah yang patut digunakan untuk berbuat demikian. Oleh itu, beliau mengambil kesempatan terdekat apabila Raja Muda Abdullah yang baru dilepaskan dari tahanan oleh Leftenan-Gabenor Anson (Raja Abdullah sewaktu itu ditangkap oleh anak kapal Midge) berada di Singapura setelah meminjam $1,000 dari Shahbandar (Uda Maamor). Bagi sesetengah pihak, Raja Muda Abdullah dirasakan sebagai seorang yang tidak boleh dipercayai manakala musuhnya, Menteri Ngah Ibrahim, merupakan pembesar yang kuasanya diiktirafi penduduk Larut. Raja Muda Abdullah sanggup menerima sistem Residen tersebut asalkan beliau dapat menduduki takhta negeri Perak sebagai Sultan. Sewaktu Raja Muda Abdullah berada di Singapura, beliau disara oleh seorang hartawan Cina bernama (Tan) Kim Ching[1], yang merupakan Konsul kerajaan Siam. Kim Ching sebelum ini telah membuat perjanjian bersama Raja Muda Abdullah di mana beliau mendapat hasil kutipan dari Larut selama sepuluh tahun jika beliau boleh memujuk pihak British untuk mengiktiraf Raja Muda Abdullah sebagai Sultan Perak. Seorang ahli Majlis Singapura bernama W.H. Read kemudiannya membawa Raja Muda Abdullah untuk berjumpa dengan Gabenor Clarke, dan selepas itu memujuk Raja Abdullah untuk menulis surat bertarikh 30 Disember 1873 meminta supaya seorang Residen dilantik jika Raja Abdullah menaiki takhta. Inilah peluang keemasan yang Gabenor Clarke nantikan selama ini.

Gabenor Clarke memikirkan yang ianya adil jika Raja Muda Abdullah mengiktiraf kedudukan Menteri Larut setelah menjadi Sultan, dan Menteri Larut berbuat sedemikian kepada Raja Abdullah. Namun, jalan tengah yang dicarikan ini tidak akan berhasil kerana Ngah Ibrahim tidak akan mengiktiraf Raja Abdullah sebagai Sultan, lebih-lebih lagi apabila British sudahpun sebelum ini sudah mengiktiraf kedudukan dirinya sendiri sebagai pemerintah Larut. Namun, sikap Menteri tersebut tidak diketahui Gabenor Clarke dan penasihatnya, Thomas Braddell, lalu mereka menganggapnya sebagai seorang yang degil, tidak menuruti perintah dan suka memberi masalah, dan ini dinyatakan di dalam laporan yang dibuat oleh Braddell tentang rundingan di Pangkor. Braddell pula, sewaktu menegur Ngah Ibrahim tentang penggunaan gelaran tengku, tidak tahu bahawa di Perak seorang menteri yang tidak berdarah raja boleh dipanggil tengku, tidak seperti di Singapura di mana gelaran tengku hanya boleh digunakan oleh anak-anak raja sahaja.

Perjanjian Pangkor, 1874. (Sumber: Arkib Negara Malaysia)

Pada 20 Januari 1874, Gabenor Clarke berjaya memujuk (Raja) Bendahara, Temenggung dan Menteri Larut untuk turut bersama pembesar-pembesar dari Hilir Perak, (Datuk) Seri Agar DiRaja, Laksamana (sepupu kepada bonda[2] Raja Abdullah) beserta timbalannya Raja Mahkota, dan Shahbandar, yakni pembesar-pembesar yang asalnya menyokong Raja Abdullah. Raja Abdullah pun menjadi Sultan Perak dan baginda bersetuju untuk menerima seorang Residen British di mana “… nasihatnya mestilah diminta dan diambil tindakan atas semua persoalan selain yang menyentuh agama Islam dan adat istiadat orang Melayu.“[3]. Di mata British, Sultan Abdullah merupakan Raja yang berhak menduduki takhta negeri Perak, yang bijak dan memahami nilai-nilai hidup Barat, dan tindakan pembesar-pembesar Melayu menghalang beliau daripada menjadi Sultan kerana beliau tidak menghadiri pengkebumian Almarhum Sultan Ali dianggap oleh British sebagai “tidak munasabah”. Walaupun perlantikan Sultan Ismail sah, beliau “dipecat” dan diberi gelaran baru[4] dan pencen sejumlah $1000 sebulan.

Gambar yang dirakam pada tahun 1875 ini menunjukkan pentadbir dan pegawai British yang terlibat dalam Perjanjian Pangkor yang ditandatangani pada 1874. Sir William Jervois, yang duduk di tengah-tengah merupakan Gabenor baru menggantikan Gabenor Clarke. Berdiri dari kiri - Dr. Anderson; Kepten Innes; Mejar F. McNair; Lt. Henry Mc Callum; J.W.W Birch; W. Knaggs (memakai suit terang); Kepten Speedy; Frank Swettenham. (Sumber: Arkib Negara Malaysia)

Setelah selesai perjanjian dimeterai, Raja Osman (ibni Almarhum Sultan Ali) tetap memegang jawatan Raja Bendahara. Ngah Ibrahim kekal sebagai Menteri Larut[5] walaupun British merasakan beliau tidak efektif dalam menangani masalah kekacauan di Larut. Gabenor Clarke juga merasakan jika jawatan Menteri dikekalkan bagi Ngah Ibrahim, keamanan boleh dipastikan di daerah tersebut. Namun begitu, Menteri Ngah Ibrahim diminta untuk membayar kepada British wang kerugian akibat kekacauan di Larut. Tidak menghairankanlah beliau menjadi marah setelah selesainya Perjanjian Pangkor, lebih-lebih lagi apabila beliau pernah menulis surat pada 1873 kepada Sultan Abdullah sewaktu baginda bergelar Raja Muda menjanjikan untuk mengiktiraf Raja Muda Abdullah sebagai Sultan Perak dengan syarat yang Sultan Abdullah tidak masuk campur dalam hal ehwal daerah Larut. Namun begitu, dua atau tiga hari setelah menerima surat tersebut, Raja Muda Abdullah memberi persetujuan untuk menyokong kongsi gelap Ghee Hin, musuh kepada kongsi gelap Hai San yang disokong Ngah Ibrahim. Setelah Perjanjian Pangkor selesai, Sultan Abdullah diminta untuk menyerahkan kepulauan Dinding kepada Britain walaupun ini menimbulkan kemarahan para pembesar Melayu. Oleh kerana perjanjian awal yang dibuat kepada (Tan) Kim Ching, Sultan Abdullah juga menyerahkan secebis dari tanah besar Dinding[6] kepada British.

[Bersambung…]

Notakaki:
[1]Tan Kim Ching (陳金鐘) merupakan anak kepada Tan Tock Seng, seorang hartawan di Singapura.
[2]Wan Ngah Mahtra.
[3]Fasal 6, Perjanjian Pangkor.
[4]Gelaran baru Raja Ismail adalah ‘Sultan Muda’ setelah Perjanjian Pangkor ditandatangani.
[5]Winstedt menerangkan dalam bukunya yang Menteri Larut meminta supaya beliau diberi kerusi untuk duduk bersama Raja-raja yang hadir di meja perjanjian, namun beliau dikerah oleh Mejar (Frederick) McNair untuk duduk di atas lantai kapal bersama pembesar-pembesar Melayu yang lain.
[6]Cebisan tanah besar dan kepulauan Dinding ini merupakan jajahan Manjung sekarang.

Rujukan: Winstedt RO, Wilkinson RJ. A History of Perak. In: VIII – British Intervention. Kuala Lumpur; MBRAS: 1974. p97-9.

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Two proclamations by Sir Andrew Clarke – 15 July 1874

Sir Andrew Clarke, Governor of the Straits Settlements 1873-1875. (Source: Wikimedia)

Following the signing of the Pangkor Treaty on 20 January 1874, two proclamations by Sir Andrew Clarke, Governor of the Straits Settlements, were published in the Straits Settlements Government Gazette on 15 July 1874, pertaining the appointment of Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah II as Sultan of Perak, and the retention of the title “Ex-Sultan” (Sultan Muda) for the deposed Sultan Ismail. Both proclamations from the Gazette are transcribed below.

_________________

Penang, Wednesday, 15th July 1874

The following Proclamations are published for general information.

PROCLAMATION

By His Excellency Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke R.E., C.B., K.C.M.G. Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements.

Whereas an Engagement was entered into at Pulo Pangkor on the 20th day of January 1874, at the instance of the Chiefs of Perak, and executed in the presence of His Excellency the Governor of the Straits Settlements, for the pacification of the country, the re-establishment of the Royal Family and Chiefs in their respective ranks and authority, for the security of the people in life and property, the advancement of trade, and the development of the resources of the country; which engagement was entered into by the said Chiefs of their own free will, and with the intent and desire that the same should be carried into effect under the protection, and with the aid of her Majesty’s Government; and WHEREAS the said engagement has been approved;

NOW BE IT KNOWN TO ALL MEN, that in terms of the said engagements, Sultan Abdullah Mohamed Shah, son of the late Sultan Jaafar AlMaAllum Shah, is recognised by Her Majesty’s Government as Sultan of Perak and its Dependancies, and all her Majesty’s subjects and persons being in the Territories of Perak are required to take notice thereof, and to govern themselves accordingly; and Whereas certain evil disposed persons are said to be engaged in conspiracies to disturb the peace of the said country of Perak, and to incite to rebellion against the  lawful authority of the said Sultan Abdullah, and to the waging of unlawful war in Perak, such persons are hereby warned and required to desist from such practises, under the pains and penalties in that case made and provided.

By His Excellency’s Command
A.E.H. ANSON
Lieut-Governor of Penang
Lieut-Governor’s Office
Penang, 13th July 1874

PROCLAMATION

By His Excellency Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke R.E., C.B., K.C.M.G., Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements.

WHEREAS by an engagement entered into at Pulo Pangkor on the 20th day of January 1874 at the instance of and by the Chiefs of Perak, it was among other things agreed that the Bendahara Ismail, then acting as Regent Sultan of Perak, should on the recognition of Sultan Abdullah Mohamed Shah (son of the late Sultan Jaafar AlMaAllum Shah) be allowed to retain the Title of Ex-Sultan, with a pension, and that a small territory should be assigned to him; and Whereas the term of the said engagement have been approved;

NOW BE IT KNOWN TO ALL MEN, that in terms of of the said engagement, the said Ismail is recognized as Ex-Sultan of Perak, and the sum of $1,000 is assigned to be paid to him monthly out of the revenues of Perak, and all private property in mines, lands, houses, cattle etc held by the said Ex-Sultan Ismail, is preserved to him for his own use and purposes, and a portion of Territory shall hereafter be marked out, by Commissioners to be appointed for that purpose, to be governed by the said Ex-Sultan Ismail, and hereafter no Taxes nor Customs nor other Duties shall be levied by the said Ex-Sultan Ismail on persons other than those living on his own property, or in the Territory to be so assigned to him.

By His Excellency’s Command
A.E.H. ANSON
Lieut-Governor of Penang
Lieut-Governor’s Office
Penang, 13th July 1874

Source: Arkib Negara Malaysia

25th Sultan of Perak: Sultan Ismail Mu’abidin Riayat Shah (1871-1874)

Raja Ismail was a grandson of the 18th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Ahmaddin Shah, as his mother was Raja Nandak binti Almarhum Sultan Ahmaddin Shah. His father was Saiyid Shaikh Al-Khairat, a member of the royal family of Siak.

Raja Ismail was appointed as Raja Bendahara in 1857 by Sultan Jaafar Muazzam Shah and remained in post, unpromoted, until the reign of Sultan Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah, as Raja Abdullah ibni Almarhum Sultan Jaafar was made Raja Muda instead.

When Sultan Ali mangkat in 1871, Raja Bendahara Ismail, as it was the adat to do so, took over in the interim and invited Raja Muda Abdullah, who was residing in Batak Rabit, to present himself at Sayong to be installed as the new Sultan before the Almarhum Sultan Ali could be interred.

It was said that Raja Muda Abdullah was concerned over his safety to make the journey, as Raja Yusuf ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Muhammad I, a rival claimant to the throne, was ready to ambush him at Senggang. The territorial chiefs waited for forty days and in the end, Raja Bendahara Ismail was appointed as the new Sultan, apparently with strong support from Ngah Ibrahim of Larut.

The palace of Sultan Ismail at what is now known as Kampung Raja in Belanja. (Photo published with permission from merbawi.blogspot.com)

Sultan Ismail then resided in Belanja[1]. During his reign, the power struggle continued in Perak . Raja Muda Abdullah and Raja Yusuf continued their infighting with regards to their claim to the throne. It is believed that during the turmoil, Raja Tepus was appointed as the acting Raja Muda.

Raja Muda Abdullah later appealed to Sir Harry Ord, who was then the Governor of the Straits Settlement, that he was the rightful candidate to the throne and Sultan Ismail’s succession was illegal and not in accordance with the adat of the state. Despite the initial abstinence from interference of Malay affairs, the British changed their tune when Sir Andrew Clarke took over as Governor in Singapore. This culminated in the conference held in Pulau Pangkor between Sir Andrew Clarke, Raja Muda Abdullah and most of the chiefs, which led to the signing of the Pangkor Treaty on 20 January 1874. One of the terms agreed in the treaty was that Sultan Ismail was to be replaced by Raja Muda Abdullah, with the former to be given the deposed title Sultan Muda.  In addition, a monthly sum of $1,000 was to be paid to Sultan Muda Ismail by the State of Perak.

The period between 1874-1875 saw such turmoil in Perak with the appointment of J.W.W. Birch as the British Resident, which concluded with Birch’s assassination at Pasir Salak. British troops were then sent to Perak marking the beginning of the Perak War. Dato’ Maharaja Lela was found by the British to be complicit in Birch’s assassination. Fleeing the pursuing British troops, he was then joined by Sultan Muda Ismail at Belanja, taking with them the articles of the State Regalia. However, Sultan Muda Ismail later surrendered himself to the Sultan of Kedah, and Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin III Mukarram Shah handed him over to Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, the Lieutenant Governor of Penang.

Sultan Muda Ismail was later sent into exile in Skudai, Johor in 1887 with his movements restricted and the articles of the State Regalia were taken by the British Government to England.

The makam of Almarhum Sultan Ismail at Makam Mahmoodiah, Johor. (Photo courtesy of merbawi.blogspot.com)

Sultan Muda Ismail mangkat on 4 September 1889. He was interred at Bukit Mahmoodiah, Johor Baharu and was given the title Marhum Mangkat di Sekudai.

Footnote: [1]The place is now called Kampung Raja, near Pekan Parit.
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Reference:
1. M.A. Fawzi Basri. Cempaka Sari: Sejarah Kesultanan Negeri Perak. Yayasan Perak; 1986.
2. Buku Chenderamata Pertabalan Sultan Idris Shah.
3. Buku Chenderamata Pertabalan Sultan Azlan Shah.
4. Portal Raja Kita Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan
5. merbawi.blogspot.com