19th Sultan of Perak: Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmaddin Shah (1806-1825)

The demise of the 18th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Ahmaddin, marked the beginning of a new era of the Perak Sultanate, where a Sultan comes from one of three families. The three families namely that of Raja Abdul Malik Mansur Shah (later Sultan), Raja Inu and Raja Abdul Rahman, who took turns to ascend the throne[1].

Raja Abdul Malik was the eldest son of Sultan Ahmaddin Shah, ascended to the throne (three months after the death of the his father) in 1806 after the heir-apparent, Raja Muda Mahmud failed to travel to Sayong to be installed as the Sultan of Perak. During his reign, Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah resided at Bandar Bharu, near Pasir Panjang.

During this time, Perak and Kedah (then under the reign of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah) had been attacked by Siam. Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah had suggested that Kedah should join forces with Perak as to resist the request of Siam for bunga emas tributes. However, Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not convinced that the combined strengths of both Perak and Kedah was enough to go against the might of Siam.

In 1818, Kedah was ordered by Siam to conquer Perak in order to collect men, fire-arms and other weapons for use against Burma, which was at that time threatening to invade Siam. The Kedah forces were under the command of Tengku Yaacob (also called Tengku Akil) and the Bendahara of Kedah. The Perak forces were reinforced by men and women under Che Panjang Talib bin Maharaja Lela Uda Tahir (Tok Janggut), a descendant of Daeng Salili.

Winstedt had described that Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah had requested assistance from the British in Penang, in the form of two warships and 2000 troops – “… half of them to be Europeans”. Despite the potential damage the attack from Kedah has to its tin ore trade with Perak, the British East India Company[2] refused to interfere. However, the attack from Kedah was called off and an armistice was agreed to. During the negotiations with Kedah, Che Anjang Talib had styled himself as Temenggong Bendahara Muda,  a representative of the Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah, of his own volition. However, Che Anjang Talib later asked for the Sultan’s pardon for calling himself Temenggong Bendahara Muda without official royal authority.

Nevertheless, Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah was pleased with the terms of the armistice between Perak and Kedah that he appointed Che Pandak Yussuf, brother of Che Panjang Talib, as Temenggong Paduka Raja and Che Alang Idin to be the Panglima Bukit Gantang. Interestingly, the Bendahara of Kedah married Che Wan Fatimah, and Tengku Yaacob married Hajah Denah, both members of the family of Che Panjang Talib.

Rama II, the King of Siam (1809-1824). (Source: Wikimedia)

In 1821, Siam overran both Kedah and Perak in retaliation for this new link formed between Perak and Kedah. Perak was consequently forced by Siam to periodically send the bunga emas tributes, as tokens of fealty. After a few years, Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah presented to Rama II, the King of Siam, a twenty-toed elephant named Chapang Pileh (‘the chosen one’), found by Toh Muda Panglima Kinta Ngah Abdul Sam in the jungles of Kinta. This so pleased Rama II that he released Perak from Siam’s suzerainty.

In a twist of events, Perak then to acknowledge the suzerainty of Selangor in 1822 in return for the assistance given by Sultan Ibrahim Shah of Selangor in the problems Perak had with Siam. Rama II was not pleased to hear of the news and had at once made preparations to conquer both Perak and Selangor. Siam had also threatened to attack Selangor if she (the latter) was to remain involved in the affairs of Perak. However, the Selangor forces had put up a determined resistance at its border with Perak and Siam had to withdraw.

Nevertheless, the British presence in Penang was concerned with the turn in events between the two Malay states with Siam. The British then intervened so that the dispute between Selangor, Perak and the kingdom of Siam was to be settled amicably and peacefully. Perak and Selangor then agreed to peace and the boundary between the two states was decided in 1824, where Sungai Bernam was fixed as the dividing line, of which both parties agreed.

The Raja of Reman, seeing that Perak was very vulnerable during this period of her solving its problems with Siam and Selangor, took this opportune moment to annex Kroh (Panglima Hulu) and Klian Intan to his territory in Upper (Hulu) Perak.

Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah mangkat in 1825 and was interred at Bandar Bharu. The title Marhum Jamalullah was conferred on him. At the time of Almarhum’s demise, Perak’s problem with Siam was still not settled, and Perak was still effectively at war with Siam, despite the intervention by the British in Penang.

_________________________________

Footnote:
[1] Sultan Ahmaddin’s three sons decided amongst themselves (diplomatically) for their respective progeny to take turns becoming the Sultan.
[2] Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah had signed a treaty of commercial alliance with the British East India Company based in Penang on 30 July 1818.

Reference:
1. Portal Raja Kita Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan
2. Laman Rasmi Pejabat DYMM Sultan Perak
3. Winstedt RO. East India Company’s relations with Siam: III. Pinang’s relations with Perak, Kelantan and Trengganu. In A History of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur & Singapore: Marican & Sons Ltd; 1982.

4 thoughts on “19th Sultan of Perak: Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmaddin Shah (1806-1825)

  1. Pingback: 23rd Sultan of Perak: Sultan Jaafar Muazzam Shah (1857-1865) « SembangKuala BLOG

  2. Pingback: Wilkinson’s treatise of the history of pre-British Perak « SembangKuala BLOG

  3. Pingback: The state of Reman in Hulu Perak « SembangKuala BLOG

  4. Pingback: The V.O.C. and Perak tin « SembangKuala BLOG

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s